When George W. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000, U.S. Senator Chuck Hagel asked him what his government had on climate change. Bush responded that he took climate change “very seriously,” but opposed the Kyoto Treaty because “it exempted 80 percent of the world, including major population centers like China and India, from its respect and would seriously harm the U.S. economy.”  The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research reports in 2001: NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Action Summit a success by encouraging more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and strengthening initiatives to reduce pollution. In fact, research clearly shows that the cost of climate inaction far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the U.S. fails to meet its Paris climate goals, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A global failure to comply with the DND currently set out in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – that the Paris targets could be very beneficial on a global scale by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency, to the amount of about $19 trillion.
However, the kyoto protocol`s targets are being questioned by climate change deniers, who condemn strong scientific evidence of human impact on climate change. A prominent scientist believes that these climate change deniers are “well” contrary to the idea of the Rousssau social contract, which is an implicit agreement between members of a society to coordinate efforts in the name of general social utility. The climate change deniers movement hinders efforts to reach agreements on climate change as a collective global society.  Nicolas Holiber`s used wood sculptures illustrate the threat that climate change poses to the inhabitants of the City of Birds. China, India, Indonesia and Brazil were not required to reduce their CO2 emissions. Other signatory countries were not required to implement a common framework or specific measures, but to achieve an emission reduction target for which they could benefit from a secondary market for multilaterally traded emission credits.  The Emissions Trading System (ETS) has allowed countries to host polluting industries and buy ownership of their environmental benefits and virtuous models from other countries.  Non-land-use change and forestry (LUCF) GHG emissions reported by 122 non-Annex I Contracting Parties for 1994 or the nearest reported year amounted to 11.7 billion tonnes (billion = 1,000,000,000). CO2 accounted for the largest share of emissions (63%), followed by methane (26%) and salmon gas (N2O) (11%).